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English is the richest language because of its vocabulary, use all over the world and its flexible nature to adopt new from all the prominent languages all over the world.
Clauses in the English language are a very important part of its grammar, speaking and writing. For that every English user should be familiar with the clause, its definition, uses, types and some specific exercises to strengthen the usage and understanding of this world language-English. The knowledge of clauses will help you in the transformation of sentences.
Refresh your previous knowledge of sentences and their parts
First, we will refresh the learning of basic details related to sentence construction and its parts.
What is a sentence-A group of words which makes complete sense is called a sentence.
Eg. 1)I am watching TV.
Can a phrase be called a sentence-No, a Phrase is not a sentence even though it expresses some meaning. It does not have a subject and verb which are essential parts of the sentence.
Eg of phrase-1) All corners of the world-
2)In the hall-She is sitting in the hall’
What are the main parts of the sentence-Subject and predicate are the main parts of the sentence.
What is subject-Subject is a person or thing about which something is said.
What is predicate-What is said about the subject is a predicate.
Eg 1)We can speak fluent English.
Predicate-can speak fluent English.
2)My friends and I went for a picnic in Goa.
Subject-My friends and I
Predicate-went for the picnic in Goa.
Definition of clause | what is a clause
After a quick refresh of previous knowledge about the sentence and its parts, we are ready to know the definition of a clause in a simple and easy-to-understand manner-
Definition of clause—- clause is a group of words that has its own subject and predicate and it is the part of one big sentence(Compound/complex).
In simple words, we can say that clause is a small sentence of one big sentence and the clause has its own subject and verb(including predicate)
Eg. 1)I saw a caterpillar that was eating leaves and it was climbing on the creeper.
Explanation—In this sentence there are 3 small sentences which are called clauses.
1)I saw a caterpillar.
2)that was eating leaves.
3)It was climbing on the creeper.
All these three small sentences have their own subjects and predicates (Most importantly verbs)
2)We visited a place that was very old.
3)He was absent yesterday because he was busy in household work.
Types of clause
There are two main types of clauses in English.
1)Main clause (Independent clause)
2)Sub-ordinate clause (Dependent clause)
Definitions of the main clause and subordinate clause—
1)Main clause(Independent clause)—The clause which expresses its meaning by itself and doesn’t depend on the other clauses for it is called the main clause. It is also called an independent clause.
2)Sub-ordinate clause(Dependent clause)—The clause which does not express its meaning by itself, it depends on the other clauses for it is called a subordinate clause(Dependent clause)
Eg. 1)She told a story that was interesting.
Explanation—Here —She told a story—-is the main clause because it explains its meaning by itself.
Which was interesting is the subordinate clause as it can’t express its meaning by itself, for that it depends on the main clause. So it is called a subordinate clause.
Types of subordinate clause
There are 3 types of the sub-ordinate clause-
Before learning their definitions, we will revise what exactly noun, pronoun, and adverb means.
The names of people, places, things, birds, animals, etc are called nouns.
The words used instead of nouns are called pronouns.
The words adding something about a verb/adjective or another adverb in the same sentence.
Now let us learn more about the 3 subtypes of the sub-ordinate clause.
If any word is the name of people/places/things/birds/animals then we call it a noun. In the same way, if any clause is used in a sentence as a noun then it is called a noun clause.
Eg.1)John learns English.(Here John and English are nouns but they are single words. They can not be called as clause)
2)John learned that English is the world language.(Here John is a noun which is the subject of this sentence. That English is the world language is the Object of the verb learned. We know the subjects and objects of all the sentences are nouns or pronouns. So here this clause is working as a noun. Rightly we call it a noun clause.
Subtypes of noun clauses with meaning and examples
There are 7 main subtypes of noun clauses —
1)Noun clause object of the verb
The clause that works as the object of the verb is called as noun clause object of the verb.
Eg. 1)He said that he was ready.
Here He said -is the main clause. If we ask a question to find the object with what to the main verb as-what did he say?-we get an answer as-that he was ready-This is an object of verb said. We know that objects and subjects are nouns or pronouns. So here this clause that he was ready-is called as noun clause object of verb said.
2)He told John that he could not come.
The main clause—He told.
Noun clause—that he could not come.
3)She asked why they were late.
The main clause—She asked.
Noun clause—why they were late.
2)Noun clause subject of the verb
The clause that works as the subject of the verb is called as noun clause subject of the verb.
Eg. 1)What he told surprised me.
Main clause—(It) surprised me.
Subordinate clause—What he told.
Here if we ask a question with who/what to the main verb to find the subject we get an answer as—What he told-We know that subjects and objects are nouns or pronouns. So we call it a noun clause subject of the verb.
2)Why he is not present (It) is not important for us.
Main clause—(It) is not important for us.
Noun clause—Why he is not present.
3)Who helps you (He/She) is your true friend.
Main clause—(He/She) is your true friend.
Noun clause—Who helps you.
3)Noun clause object of the preposition
It works as an object of the preposition.
Eg. 1)You must believe in what he says.
The main clause—You must believe in.
Noun clause object of the preposition in—-what he says.
2)We must rely on what he brings for us.
The main clause—We must rely on.
Noun clause object of preposition on—what he brings.
3)They must listen to what their teacher guides them.
The main clause—They must listen to.
Noun clause object of the preposition to—what their teacher guides.
4)Noun clause object of the participle
It works as an object of the participle.
Eg. 1)We thanked him for doing what we told him to do.
The main clause—We thanked him for doing.
Noun clause object of participle doing—what we told him to do.
2)I admired him for bringing what I wanted.
The main clause—I admired him for bringing.
Noun clause object of participle bringing—what I wanted.
5)Noun clause object of the infinitive
It works as an object of infinitive.
Eg. 1)She requested me to give what she wanted for her project.
The main clause—She requested me to give.
Noun clause object of the infinitive to give—what she wanted for her project.
2)He called me to inform that he couldn’t come.
The main clause—He called me to inform.
Noun clause object of the infinitive to inform—That he couldn’t come.
6)Noun clause in apposition to a noun
It works in apposition to the noun. Apposition means a relationship in which a word or phrase or clause is placed next to another so as to qualify or explain it.
Eg, 1)The fact that he was a criminal became public.
The main clause—The fact became public.
Noun clause in apposition to noun fact—that he was criminal.
2) The truth that hard work pays is known to everyone.
The main clause—The truth is known to everyone.
Noun clause in apposition to noun truth—that hard work pays.
7)Noun clause as a verb complement
It works as a verb complement—the thing that improves something is called a complement.
Eg. 1)It seems that the storm will start blowing.
The main clause—It seems.
Noun clause as a verb complement for seems—that the storm will start blowing.
2)It looks that he will fail.
The main clause—It looks.
Noun clause as a verb complement—that he will fail.
In this way, we have finished the study of the Noun Clause. Now we will know more about the adjective clauses and adverb clauses.
2)What is the Adjective clause
An adjective describes or qualifies a noun or pronoun. eg. good, bad, important, easy, difficult.
In the same way, if any subordinate clause describes or qualifies a noun or pronoun then it is called an adjective clause.
this is the meaning of the adjective clause.
The simple trick to identify an adjective clause easily is that it begins with relative pronouns like
Note—Adjective clause strictly comes after the noun to which it qualifies or describes and who is used as a relative pronoun for human beings, which is used for animals, things, and others and that is used as a relative pronoun for all nouns.
Examples of adjective clause
1)I saw a man who was working in the field.
The main clause—I saw a man.
Adjective clause—who was working.
Here adjective clause describes the noun—man
2)She saw a tree that was full of fresh fruits.
3)You told a story that was frightening.
4)I have found the book which my father gifted me.
5)My mother praised the gift that I gave her.
6)She visited the place where she lived in her childhood.
7)Teacher asked the reason why his students failed.
8)Festival is a time when people do a lot of shopping.
9)My mother who is a teacher helps me in my study.
10)The person whose lungs are strong can only climb Everest.
11)He is the same person whom you want to meet.
3)What is an adverb clause
Adverb adds something about the verb(And adjective).In the same way, the adverb clause adds something about the verb(action) in the main clause.
Sub-types of adverb clauses with meaning and examples
There are 9 subtypes of an adverb clause. They are as follows.
1) Adverb clause of time
It shows the time of action in the main clause.
The adverb clause of time begins with
As soon as
Eg. 1)We will buy a laptop when it becomes cheaper.
The main clause—We will buy a laptop.
Adverb clause of time—when it becomes cheaper.
2)He will come after he has finished his work.
3)She walked ahead till she reached a small hut.
2)Adverb clause of place
It shows the place of action(Verb) mentioned in the main clause.
Adverb clause of place begins with—
Eg. 1)He will go where he gets a good job.
2)You can play wherever you want.
3)Adverb clause of condition
It shows the condition for the action mentioned in the main clause.
Adverb clause of the condition begins with—
Eg. 1)You will pass if you study hard.
2)If you run fast, you will catch the bus.
3)Unless you pay attention, you will not understand.
4)Adverb clause of reason
It shows the reason for action in the main clause.
Adverb clause of reason begins with—
Eg. 1)I could not come to the party because I did not get time.
2)She answered all the questions since she wanted to secure good marks
5)Adverb clause of result
It shows the result of the action in the main clause.
The Adverb clause of result begins with—
That—when there is so in the main clause.
Eg. 1)She is so tired that she can not wait.
Main clause—She is so tired.
Adverb clause of result—that she can not wait.
2)He was so busy that he could not come.
3)It was so heavy for us that we could not lift it.
6)Adverb clause of contrast
It shows contrast to the action mentioned in the main clause.
Adverb clause of contrast begins with—
Eg. 1)Though he is clever, He gets poor marks.
2)Although he worked hard, He did not get a reward for it.
7)Adverb clause of purpose
It shows the purpose of the action in the main clause.
Adverb clause of purpose begins with—-
In order that
Eg. 1)Our soldiers fight on the borders so that we should live safely.
2)We should follow traffic rules in order that we should drive safely.
8)Adverb clause of manner
It shows the manner of the action in the main clause.
Adverb clause of manner begins with—
Eg. 1)You should act as I tell you.
2)You reap as you sow.
9)Adverb clause of comparison
It shows the comparison of the main clause with it.
Sentences of positive degree and comparative degree are examples of Adverb clauses of comparison.
Eg.1)He is as clever as his brother is.
2)She is more active in her studies than her friends are.
What are the uses and functions of clauses in the English language grammar?
1)Clause is very useful for clever and appealing sentence construction.
2)Clause plays a key role in deciding the type of sentence based on clause construction. If there is only one main clause then it is a simple sentence. If there are two or more main clauses in the sentence then it becomes a compound sentence. When we use one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses then it becomes a complex sentence.
3)Clause is necessary to reduce or increase the length of your verbal or written communication.
4)Knowledge of clauses gives you an edge over others in impressive sentence construction.
Exercise for identifying types of clauses
Identify and name the clause in the given sentences.
1)She told her mother that she would help her.
Ans. The main clause—She told her mother.
Noun clause—that she would help her.
2)I want to visit a place which is very beautiful.
Ans.-Main clause—I want to visit the place.
Adjective clause—which is very beautiful.
3)I will stop working when it gets dark.
Ans.—The main clause-I will stop working.
Adverb clause—when it gets dark.
In this way, we have learned that a clause is a group of words having its own subject and predicate. There are two main types of clauses 1)Main clause(Independent clause) 2)Sub-ordinate clause(Dependent clause).
Also, we knew that there are 3 sub-types of the subordinate clause. They are 1)Noun clause 2)Adjective clause 3)Adverb clause. Again there are 7 sub-types of noun clauses and 9 subtypes of adverb clauses. We have studied all types of clauses and their examples and important details.
I hope it will be helpful for you all. Do let me know your views and suggestions through comments.
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